In the context of recent debates among MLA members about deeply held political convictions, the Executive Council of the MLA—the elected body charged with fiduciary and administrative responsibility for the association—reaffirms the principle that the MLA has the right and the obligation to engage in full and open debate on issues of shared public concern. In the spirit of that commitment, the council wishes to clarify that resolutions passed by the membership constitute expressions of sentiment and are nonbinding for the organization. Resolution 2017-1 calls on the MLA to refrain from endorsing a boycott, but that resolution is not a motion, which would determine policy. Resolution 2017-1 in no way precludes the possibility of a new resolution with another expressive aim and in no way limits debate or a vote on this matter in the future.
The search committee established last year reviewed many excellent applicants for the executive director position, and we were gratified by the interest expressed by the talented individuals who applied for it. Given the strong pool of candidates, we are confident that we will find a superb leader for the future.
As the search enters its final stages at a time when the composition of the Executive Council has recently changed, the MLA’s first vice president, Anne Gere, and a newly appointed search committee will lead the process. The committee welcomes your suggestions for any additional candidates, so feel free to send recommendations to Jeff Kessner at Isaacson, Miller (email@example.com).
We thank you for your patience as we take the time necessary to find the right person to represent MLA members at this critical moment.
We look forward to updating you soon.
President, Modern Language Association
Members of the 2017 Search Committee
Gertrude Buck Collegiate Professor and Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of English, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
MLA first vice president
professor of English, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
MLA Executive Council; member, MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Advocacy Policies and Procedures
Robert Schirmer Professor of English, Princeton University
MLA second vice president
former professor of Spanish, San Joaquin Delta College, CA
former member of the MLA Executive Council
Gertrude Conaway Vanderbilt Distinguished Professor of Humanities, Vanderbilt University; professor of African American and Diaspora Studies (AADS) and French; director, AADS and Research Center
MLA Executive Council
university professor, New York University; professor of Spanish and Portuguese; professor of performance studies, NYU Tisch School of the Arts; director, Hemispheric Institute of Performance and Politics
professor of English, Howard University
MLA Executive Council
This week, the comment period opens on two resolutions approved by the MLA Delegate Assembly at the association’s 2017 annual convention. In keeping with its fiduciary responsibility and in accordance with the MLA constitution (art. 7.B.3), at its February 2017 meeting the Executive Council conducted a review of the constitutional, legal, and fiduciary issues posed by the language of each resolution approved by the Delegate Assembly. The council must answer the following four questions:
- Does the resolution impede the council’s ability to carry out its fiduciary responsibilities?
- Does the resolution contain erroneous, tortious, or potentially libelous statements?
- Does the resolution, by itself or taken with other resolutions, pose a threat to the organization’s continuing operation as a tax-exempt organization?
- Is the resolution consistent with the provisions of articles 2 and 9.C.10?*
Having applied these criteria to each resolution, the council voted to forward them to the membership for a vote. It took no position on the merits of their content, a practice consistent with all previous resolutions forwarded to the membership. At the same time, it has become increasingly clear to both the Executive Council and the Delegate Assembly Organizing Committee (DAOC), with whom the council confers on all matters pertaining to Delegate Assembly procedures, that the current resolution process has begun to take up far more than a reasonable share of the organization’s resources, putting an undue burden on the MLA staff as well as on the members who volunteer their time to represent their colleagues on the Delegate Assembly, the DAOC, and the Executive Council.
The council has established an ad hoc committee charged with clarifying the resolution process and looking more broadly at the ways MLA members might ask the association to speak out on matters that concern them. This ad hoc committee will deliberate this year and propose to the Executive Council and the Delegate Assembly what it feels are the best ways for the association to engage in advocacy and express political sentiment. The Executive Council looks forward to the committee’s proposals and is eager to see the membership reenergized by multiple avenues of advocacy. The times in which we are living call for collective efforts that are efficient and focused. We hope you will let us know your thoughts on how best we can do this work.
* Article 2 (Purpose): The object of the association shall be to promote study, criticism, and research in the more and less commonly taught modern languages and their literatures and to further the common interests of teachers of these subjects.
Article 9.C.10 (Delegate Assembly—Responsibilities): In accordance with article 11.C, to formulate and submit to the membership for ratification resolutions on matters of public and institutional policy affecting the study and teaching of the humanities and the status of the language and literature professions represented by the association. Such matters may include proposed or enacted legislation, regulations, or other governmental and institutional policies, conditions of employment and publication, or additional matters that affect the association, its members in their professional capacities, or the dignity of members’ work.
The process of selecting a new MLA executive director to succeed Rosemary G. Feal is under way. The position profile, written by the search committee and the Executive Council, is now available on the MLA’s search page and on the Web site of our search consultants, Isaacson, Miller. The position will be advertised in the Chronicle of Higher Education at the beginning of the academic year.
Isaacson, Miller has already begun assembling information about potential candidates and will ramp up its activities as the summer comes to an end. The search committee will continue to meet this fall and next year. Our plan is to provide a list of finalists to the Executive Council so that it can make a decision in early 2017.
Although most of our activity between now and then must be confidential, I want to assure you that our silence does not mean that we are idle!
With my best wishes for a productive summer,
Anthony Appiah, MLA President
Chair, Search Committee
On 24 February Rosemary Feal announced that she plans to step down as executive director of the MLA in summer 2017. The association’s Executive Council has appointed a search committee and retained a search firm to find her successor.
The Executive Council aimed to form a search committee of a workable size that would represent MLA members’ diverse fields and forms of employment. We are pleased to announce that the nine-person committee is composed of scholars from departments of English, French, and Spanish and Portuguese. It has a graduate student, a non-tenure-track faculty member, a museum educator trained in literature, as well as tenured faculty members from Research I universities. In addition, it includes former department chairs, deans from two public regional universities, a former executive director of a learned society, and professors of performance studies, African American studies, and philosophy and law.
The members of the search committee are
MLA Executive Council
former member of the MLA Executive Council
MLA Executive Council
member, MLA Committee on Academic Freedom and Professional Rights and Responsibilities
MLA Executive Council
MLA first vice president
Initial phases of the search have begun. The search firm of Isaacson, Miller, chosen for its experience in recruiting leaders in higher education, foundations, scholarly societies, and nonprofit associations, is collaborating with the search committee to develop a position profile, which will be made available on the MLA Web site. Members are invited to submit nominations or applications directly to Isaacson, Miller on the Web site dedicated to the search: www.imsearch.com/5808.
Kwame Anthony Appiah, president, for the Executive Council
Rosemary G. Feal, the executive director of the Modern Language Association since summer 2002, has informed the Executive Council that she plans to step down when her third five-year term concludes in summer 2017. The Executive Council will appoint a search committee for Feal’s successor at its February 2016 meeting and aims to have a new executive director in place by the time of her departure.
“My abiding respect for our mission and for our members’ work has kept me passionately committed to this extraordinary organization,” Feal said. “Fifteen years is a long time, and, while I have enjoyed every moment, it’s now the right move for the association to plan for a smooth leadership transition and for me to pursue new opportunities.”
MLA President Anthony Appiah said, “In a decade and a half of challenges—the explosion of nontenured faculty, new technological resources, falling financial state support, and rising hostility to the humanities—Rosemary has led the MLA’s response smartly, knowledgeably, and with great good humor. We owe her an enormous debt of gratitude. She will be sorely missed.”
During her tenure, Feal has been a steadfast champion for language study. The 2007 report Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World has been highly influential in colleges and universities, and the ADFL-MLA Language Consultancy Service, administered by the Association of Departments of Foreign Languages, has made a direct impact on language departments across the United States. In 2015 Feal was appointed to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences’ Commission on Language Learning.
The MLA has long been recognized as a leader among associations for its scholarly communication program. Under Feal’s direction, the MLA produced guidelines for evaluating scholarship for tenure and promotion and for assessing work in digital humanities and digital media. Since she assumed her position, the association has made Profession an open-access electronic journal, launched the scholarly exchange platform MLA Commons, and built the Commons Open Repository Exchange, a library-quality repository for sharing and archiving digital work. The MLA International Bibliography continues to be an ever-growing and indispensable scholarly resource used worldwide. Feal has also overseen a revolutionary revision of MLA style that will be released in April 2016.
Feal has also led the MLA in envisioning new forms of scholarly collaboration. As chair of the MLA Program Committee, she has been a guiding force behind profound changes in the MLA Annual Convention, such as the shift to January dates, new session formats, and a reimagining of the divisional structure. In the past year, she has been instrumental in the development of the MLA’s first international symposium, to be held in Düsseldorf in June 2016.
Feal has made advocacy for the profession a priority for the organization. She has supported the Executive Council in documenting and publicizing the changes in the profession, charting the course for better working conditions for teachers of languages and literatures, and collaborating with allies to resist the erosion of tenure and academic freedom. The MLA has proposed necessary reforms to graduate degree programs and has recommended a more capacious notion of the doctoral dissertation. Expanding the career horizons of PhDs is another project that Feal has spearheaded; Connected Academics, a multiyear project funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, provides thousands of teachers and scholars the opportunity to learn about the broad humanities workforce and prepare themselves for participation in it.
The changes that Feal has made in the administration of the MLA have set a foundation for a strong future. The association now has operating reserves that far exceed recommended standards, ensuring a measure of stability in a time of great change. The amount of funds given in travel grants for graduate students and adjuncts has quadrupled during her tenure, and every eligible request has been met. The MLA is a model that other associations seek to follow in matters such as governance, board and staff cooperation, and fiduciary oversight.
“Rosemary’s leadership has had everything to do with sustaining and enhancing the MLA’s financial health and well-being during and since the Great Recession,” said Domna C. Stanton, an MLA trustee, the association’s 2005 president, and a former editor of PMLA. “I am proud of the MLA’s standing among professional associations in the humanities and beyond, which is thanks in large measure to Rosemary’s skillful management and deployment of resources.”
Feal has served as vice president of the National Humanities Alliance, the advocacy coalition dedicated to the advancement of humanities education, research, preservation, and public programs. She has also been chair of the Conference of Administrative Officers of the American Council of Learned Societies and a member of the ACLS board of directors. Feal was a fellow of the American Council on Education in 2011–12, working with the Five Colleges, Inc., in Western Massachusetts. Coeditor of the SUNY Series in Latin American Iberian Thought and Culture, she is also an associate editor of the Afro-Hispanic Review and former senior consulting editor of the Latin American Literary Review.
Before coming to the MLA, Feal was professor of Spanish and chair of the department of modern languages and literatures at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York. “I have always been an enthusiastic classroom teacher, and I’d like to think I will find myself among students again in the near future,” she noted. “Teaching and learning is at the heart of what we do—after all, it’s what initially attracts MLA members to the association. I intend to be in learning and teaching mode for whatever career pursuits are next for me, and MLA members have given me excellent models to emulate.”
The Modern Language Association has joined other associations in the American Council of Learned Societies in issuing the following statement about tenure and academic freedom at the University of Wisconsin.
The American system of higher education is the envy of the world. It’s not perfect; few things are. But at a time when many Americans fear their nation may be falling behind competitively, U.S. colleges and universities continue to be universally regarded as the best in the world. The University of Wisconsin system, in particular, is noted for its standards of research and teaching excellence, with the Madison campus recognized among the top fifteen of American public universities by U.S. News and World Report. The University of Wisconsin is a critical contributor to the state’s economy that provides exceptional value with its thirteen campuses serving over 180,000 students. With $1.2 billion of state investment, the system generates over $15 billion of economic activity.
The undersigned associations of scholars across a wide variety of disciplines are gravely concerned with proposals pending in the Wisconsin legislature that threaten to undermine several longstanding features of the state’s current higher education system: shared governance, tenure, and academic freedom.
By situating the locus of control inside the institution, in a partnership between faculty and administrators, the U.S. system of higher education has generated an unmatched diversity that enables students to find the educational environment that works best for them. And by granting faculty tenure after an appropriate period during which their work is rigorously evaluated, we have ensured the continued intellectual vitality and classroom independence so essential to innovation, dynamism, and rigorous scholarship.
Academic freedom is the foundation of intellectual discovery, including in the classroom. It nourishes the environment within which students develop critical habits of mind through encounters with diverse perspectives, experiences, and sources of evidence across disciplines. Our democracy depends on the educated citizens that this system is intended to produce: wide-ranging in their knowledge, rigorous in their ability to understand complicated questions, and dedicated to the public good.
Wisconsin in fact helped pioneer the concept of academic freedom for the entire United States when its Board of Regents declared in 1894 that they would not terminate the employment of economist Richard Ely even though his research and teaching on the benefits of labor unions had offended one of its own members. The Regents’ report in the wake of that controversy remains one of the most ringing endorsements for academic freedom in the history of American higher education: “Whatever may be the limitations which trammel inquiry elsewhere,” they wrote, “we believe the great state University of Wisconsin should ever encourage that continual and fearless sifting and winnowing by which alone the truth can be found.”
The policies recommended by the Joint Finance Committee and included in the 2016 budget pose a direct threat to academic freedom by expanding the circumstances under which tenure can be revoked (beyond dire financial emergencies and just cause) while simultaneously removing its protection under state statute. Tenure is a linchpin of vigorous shared governance and independent rigorous scholarship. This assault on the structure of Wisconsin’s model arrangements poses a threat to the university’s stellar reputation and international leadership in research and education—and it betrays a celebrated Wisconsin tradition that began with the Ely case in 1894.
Since 1904, the “Wisconsin Idea” has stood as an inspiring educational model for the entire nation, demonstrating the immeasurable benefits of a robust partnership between the state university and state government predicated on intellectual independence and active engagement by students and faculty members with the wider world. An earlier draft of the current budget bill sought to remove language about the Wisconsin Idea from the mission statement of the university. This most recent draft now poses no less a threat by undermining several of the most important practical pillars of shared governance and academic freedom that have made Wisconsin a beacon among its peer institutions around the world.
Rather than making the University of Wisconsin system more fiscally nimble, the Joint Finance Committee recommendations threaten to damage, possibly irreparably, the distinguished educational system that has justifiably been the pride of Wisconsin residents for more than a century and a half.
American Academy of Religion
American Anthropological Association
American Comparative Literature Association
American Folklore Society
American Historical Association
American Society of Comparative Law
American Society for Environmental History
American Sociological Association
American Studies Association
Association of College & Research Libraries
Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies
College Art Association
German Studies Association
Modern Language Association
National Communication Association
National Council on Public History
Oral History Association
The Shakespeare Association of America
The Sixteenth Century Society and Conference
Society of Architectural Historians
World History Association
Dear MLA Members,
It is our pleasure to announce that the Executive Council has approved a proposal for a new division and discussion group structure starting with the 2016 convention. As cochairs of the working group that developed the proposal over three years, with broad-based consultation among individual members, numerous MLA committees, and the Delegate Assembly, we are delighted to introduce the new structure and to invite you to become involved in implementing it. We know you will have lots of questions, and you will find answers to many of them here.
This extensive review was the first in forty years. It aimed to respond thoughtfully to intellectual changes that have occurred since 1974, which have affected the kinds of work done in long-established MLA fields while also contributing to the formation of new fields.
Several priorities guided the multifaceted review process:
- a commitment to the deep study of language, literature, and their histories
- the protection of small fields, including the study of less commonly taught languages
- the attempt to minimize hierarchies and exclusions among fields, large and small
- the aim to lessen the divide between English and foreign languages in the MLA
- the desire to add new fields in emergent areas
As you review the new structure, you will find much continuity as well as a number of significant changes.
- For the sake of democratization and simplification, the distinction between discussion groups and divisions has been eliminated in favor of the single category forums.
- The forums are grouped under nine rubrics, which are meant to enhance the legibility of the new structure while allowing intellectual exchanges within and across categories. Forums are arranged alphabetically within these nine rubrics:
- Languages, Literatures, and Cultures
- Comparative Literary and Cultural Studies
- Genre Studies
- Media Studies
- Rhetoric, Composition, and Writing Studies
- Language Studies and Linguistics
- Theory and Method
- Transdisciplinary Connections
- Higher Education and the Profession
- Forums will be reviewed every five years and will thus have regular opportunities to study their histories and their plans for the future.
- Each forum will have a group site on MLA Commons for year-round communication.
- Many new forums have been preapproved by the council and can hold sessions as early as 2016.
- Members may propose additional new forums starting with the 2018 convention.
- A new kind of convention session, the three-year seminar, is geared to specialized topics that call for sustained attention beyond that which is offered by the special session format. They will be introduced for the 2018 convention.
As we introduce this new structure, we are keenly aware of the many negotiations and imperfect compromises that produced it. The discussions in which we have engaged with many of you during these last three years have been both invigorating and humbling. We are grateful for the time and thought you put into your comments. We learned from them all, and they led us to think hard and in new ways about how to negotiate among many differing ideas and stakes in the future of the MLA.
Beginning this process, we knew that we could not actually complete it, if completion meant devising a structure that would stand unaltered for decades. We hoped to provoke a conversation among members about the shapes and priorities of our fields. This conversation has certainly occurred, and it has produced a structure that includes, as a constitutive element, a process of regular review.
With this letter, we happily announce that one phase of the conversation has concluded, and we look forward to the new phases that will occur at MLA conventions, in MLA committee meetings, and on MLA Commons. Our thanks go to the working group (Srinivas Aravamudan, David Bartholomae, Brent Edwards, Carla Freccero, Mary Louise Pratt, Richard So, and Patricia Yaeger); to members of the Executive Council, who gave us much advice; and to all MLA members who commented on the various drafts circulated over the past year. We also thank Rosemary G. Feal, who encouraged us at every step of the way, and the many MLA staff members who contributed to the revision process and who will now be working with the membership on implementation. We can’t wait to see how members use the new structure to expand their interests at the convention and on MLA Commons.
Margaret Ferguson, President
Marianne Hirsch, Immediate Past President
Thank you to all the members whose thoughtful feedback helped the Executive Council and me revise these guidelines. The final statement is now available on mla.org. I hope you will share these guidelines with job seekers and other colleagues involved in the hiring process.
I welcome your frank opinions on a new MLA document that would, if approved by the Executive Council, outline some best practices for those who write, request, or read letters of recommendation for graduate students seeking employment or postdoctoral fellowships in MLA fields.
For some time now, I have had conversations with graduate students and faculty members about the difficulties in requesting and writing recommendation letters. In the current stressful and often enigmatic competition for academic jobs and fellowships, students wonder how many letters are really required (perhaps over and above the number stated in a job advertisement), about what an effective letter looks like, and about who will write them the most effective letter. Faculty members also wonder what makes a letter effective. Even the term effective is enigmatic in the present network of academic social relations, as a comparison of current letters with those written in the past dramatically shows. The genre has a long and multicultural history; from what I have been able to reconstruct of it, the (almost always male) letter writer typically knew whether his letter was effective by whether its recipient did or did not give the recommended candidate the position or service respectfully requested on his or her behalf by the letter writer. Today, in contrast, institutions require multiple letters and typically delegate tasks of judgment to committees with several members who read dossiers that contain the candidate’s self-recommending letter along with letters from several knowledgeable (but not disinterested) faculty members, and there are very few ways for the writer to gauge the value of his or her letter—or even to know what systems of value are at stake. It is no wonder that some faculty members find the work of writing letters time-consuming, perplexing, and sometimes unrewarding; they know that a single negative phrase can harm a student’s application for a job or fellowship, but they have little evidence that entirely positive letters help students achieve their goals.
Moreover, when departments request (or simply accept) six or more letters for each applicant, faculty letter writers (who are of course also often readers of job dossiers) cannot help being aware that the labor and time of writing letters are out of sync with the labor and time devoted to reading them (especially at the early stages of a job search). Recognizing that the terrible academic job market is at the root of many problems that faculty members encounter as they attempt to help their advanced PhD students gain an academic position, I think that the MLA can make some useful suggestions for best practices in this small but important arena of academic work.
The following draft proposals distill some of the arguments presented in a longer and more historical form in an article I wrote for the special topic Work in the October 2012 issue of PMLA, coordinated by Vicky Unruh, and incorporate suggestions from an Executive Council discussion in May 2013. The recommendations are modeled in part on those in the document entitled “Professional Employment Practices for Non-Tenure-Track Faculty Members: Recommendations and Evaluative Questions.” Prepared by the MLA Committee on Contingent Labor in the Profession, that document has been sent to department chairs, university administrators, and MLA members who are graduate students and professors in both tenure-track and non-tenure-track positions. Anecdotal evidence indicates that the committee’s suggestions are bearing fruit in some places.
I hope to bring a revised statement to the council in October 2013, incorporating your suggestions. I would be grateful for your comments on the recommendations below as well as for your suggestions for other possible recommendations. During the council’s discussion in May, there were differing views on limiting the number of recommendations (outlined in point 7), so I also invite you to comment specifically on that issue. Documents recommending changes in professional behavior are most likely to be read if they have been debated and revised in the process of being produced. I hope you will participate in that process now!
Thank you, and all best wishes,
First Vice President
- Faculty letter writers should consider whether the length and content of their recommendation are appropriate in relation to the student’s letter of application. Some faculty members who write letters of more than three pages may be offering descriptions of the student’s intellectual project that compete with, rather than support, the student’s account of his or her project.
- Graduate students should ask faculty members for letters of recommendation well in advance of going on the job market so that letter writers can visit graduate students’ classes to gain firsthand knowledge of their teaching practices. The corollary of this recommendation is that faculty letter writers, especially but not only dissertation directors, should be able to comment knowledgeably on the students’ syllabi, student evaluations, and classroom practices. Many postdoctoral fellowships require some teaching as well as a strong intellectual project, so faculty letter writers, especially dissertation directors, should be prepared to write an informed letter that speaks to both pedagogical and scholarly issues.
- Directors of graduate studies should consider reviewing all letters of recommendation written for students going on the academic job market. Alternatively, graduate directors or department chairs could ask a trusted faculty member to perform this service, which could include proofreading as well as fact-checking (e.g., how many courses the graduate student has taught) or discrepancies in projections about important matters such as the dissertation completion date. Reviewing of students’ recommendations was a standard practice in many departments and other academic units before electronic uploading of individual letters became the norm. Some departments may have found ways to continue the reviewing practice in the digital age. (If your department has done so, please describe its process in your comments.)
- Hiring departments (and deans who oversee departmental hiring protocols) should consider requiring letters of recommendation only for finalists or semifinalists in a job search rather than for all applicants. With electronic communication resources, there is no longer a need to have all parts of a dossier submitted at the same time. Many faculty readers of dossiers say that they don’t read letters of recommendation carefully until the applicant is at the “long short list” stage of the selection process. (Note: It’s my sense that faculty members could tailor their letters more effectively if asked to comment at a later stage of the hiring process—but I don’t want to make the possibility of such tailoring, which involves extra work and which some of us already do, a linchpin for this general recommendation.)
- Deans and provosts should consult with department chairs in language and literature departments before making decisions (or delegating them to human resources administrators) about adopting a platform that has an automatic limit on words or on characters for uploaded letters of recommendation. Setting automatic length limits requires extra work from recommendation writers, who submit many letters for many students applying to different institutions. Academic administrators should also consult with their counterparts in other institutions about how the rapid and unstandardized changes in the reception of job search materials are affecting the labor time of faculty members in fields where detailed narrative evaluations are the norm.
- Administrators in agencies and foundations that award postdoctoral fellowships should consider changing automatic word or character limits for recommendations if such limits have been set for the convenience of the staff or of outside reviewers. Stating clearly in the directions to letter writers that letters should not exceed two or three pages is reasonable; cutting off letters automatically is not. To find that your letter must stop in midsentence (or midword!) creates bad will and a collective loss of faculty time. Moreover, if faculty members think carefully about the above proposal, concerning the appropriate length for most letters, the automatic cutoffs introduced by electronic uploading procedures may become unnecessary. That is, fellowship administrators can join a field of negotiation and debate rather than allow technology to decide on an issue that has not yet been adequately discussed in the profession.
- Hiring departments should consider limiting the number of required letters of recommendation to three (four, perhaps, when the position requires competence in more than one area). At present, there is considerable confusion on the part of graduate students about how many letters are “really” needed; some students are asking for—and receiving—as many as nine or ten letters while other students (especially those going on the market for the first time) feel doomed to failure because they have letters coming only from their dissertation committee members and perhaps from someone else who will write a “separate” teaching letter. If letter writers adopt a holistic approach to their letters and if students request letters in advance, allowing letter writers time not only to observe classes but also to comment on job search materials and writing samples, departments could at least have a robust discussion of how many letters are “really” needed for candidates for a certain job. Once such a decision is made, departments could give it heft by stating clearly in their MLA Job Information List advertisement that the search committee will read only the first (three? four?) letters in any dossier.
- Faculty members who write letters of recommendation for graduate students (or undergraduates or colleagues) should carefully consider the legal opinion that “recommendations should be written on the assumption that the subject will read the letter.” This opinion, formulated by lawyers employed by the University of Alabama, Huntsville, occurs in a document that examines, among other things relevant to faculty recommendation writers, a student’s right, granted by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), to read statements about him or her. While students may waive this right on the letter of recommendation form, faculty letter writers should understand that such waivers may not hold up in a legal proceeding. (Note: Confidentiality is also a vexed issue in external review letters; some states prohibit public universities from keeping letters of evaluation confidential. That issue might be taken up in these proposals.)